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Василиса 27 июня 2007
Experts compare Evpatoria's climate to the climates in the resorts of the south of France and Italy. From a review of various expert ecological examinations of the city, Evpatoria is recognized as one of the cleanest cities of the old Soviet Union. Fresh air without industrial contamination, the warm sea, the fine soft sand of the beaches, the bright sun - these are good health's best friends, all of which wait for you in Evpatoria.
Spring wind is quickly warmed by the sea and mixed with the intoxicating aroma of new foliage, flowering lilac and acacia. In the summer it's light sea breezes with the scent of the midday grassy steppe, which breakup the hot air flow and bring a liberating cool freshness. In autumn and winter, on the contrary, the sea returns stored heat with pulses of hazy steam, which can withstand a northeaster. On the steppe expanse there is nothing to impede stagnant, dirty air, dispersed by freely moving winds.
Precipitation falls here in regular intervals during the year, but generally speaking, as with the adjoining Crimean steppe, there is not enough. The average annual amount is about 380 mm. Evaporation is significant, reaching 711 mm during a year. The dry period begins in the middle of the March and proceeds almost up to the end of November - about 255 days. The greatest amount of evaporation happens in August (120 mms). Thus, the climate of Evpatoria is the driest of all the Crimean seaside resorts.
The air temperature during the year is changeable due to the opposing influences of the sea and steppe, particularly in winter. The temperature of the hottest month (July) is 23.2 Celsius, the coldest (February) is 0.6 Celsius. The number of days with snow-cover is 14. The sea water temperature by summer is very stable and remains around 24-26 Celsius. Swimming in Evpatoria, generally begins in the second half of May and lasts up to the second half of September, but often even into October, i.e. not less then four months. Evpatoria has a lot of sun - from June to September Evpatoria's sky is nearly cloudless, and there are many sunny days in winter.
During the summer period, uneven heating of the land and sea creates ascending currents of air, absorbing and transporting water that has evaporated from the sea. In addition, great amounts of air are dried up during summer by the hot winds of the steppe, against which Evpatoria has no natural protection. If you add to this the abundance of clear sunny days, particularly in the summer, and the powerful heating of the air in the summer months, it becomes clear that Evpatoria's climate, representing a mixture of the sea and the steppe, strongly promotes skin respiration (perspiration).
The elements of the steppe and sea climate are successfully combined at the western Crimean coast. The steppe's influence is seen in the constant sunshine and the air's low relative humidity.
Evpatoria's average annual sun hour total is 2430. For comparison, on the south coast of Crimea the yearly average of sun hours is little more than 2220, in Sochi it's 2200, in Moscow it's 1560 and in Leningrad it's 1496. The greatest number of solar days falls during the period between April to October (an average of 27 days a month). From June to September there are almost no cloudy days and the sun generously pours down its rays from the pure, endlessly-blue sky.
On other days, when the air is especially clear, the odd outlines of mountain ridges covered by a bluish haze appear on the sea horizon. This surprising picture inspired the prominent Polish poet A. Mitskevicha. He visited Evpatoria in the summer of 1825, which at that time was often called Kozlov from the old style. At that time, one of the 'Crimean Sonnets' was born: "Mountain View from the Kozlov Steppe."
As in all of the Crimean Steppe, the western sea coast only receives a small amount of precipitation: the average annual amount in Evpatoria is 371.8 mm. Relative humidity is low at 78%. Summer heat easily tolerated because of the dryness of the air.
The Black Sea provides a regulating influence on the coastal climate. It warms up and cools off more slowly than land, serving in summer as a natural cooler, while in the winter however, it warms the seaside. Winter in Evpatoria is moderately cool, but occasionally there are strong frosts to as low as -25 Celsius. Summer is hot, occasionally the heat can reach 35 Celsius and even higher. The average temperature in winter is 0.8 Celsius, 10 Celsius in spring, 22.6 Celsius in summer, 13 Celsius in autumn. The lowest average monthly temperature (-0.6 Celsius) occurs in February, the highest (23.2 Celsius) falls in July. Days with frost average 79 per year, 39 of them during thawing weather.
Breezes are a valuable element of the climate of the western coast. In daytime they carry from the sea enormous amounts of clean sea air, rich in ozone and salt sodium, iodine, bromine and others, and drastically moderate the heat. At night, the breezes gust from land to the sea, mitigating with night coolness the steppe air heated during the day. Thus, breezes promote the ventilation of the coast and an evening out of the daily temperature fluctuations.
The average atmospheric pressure in Evpatoria is 762.8 mm, with rather insignificant deviations. The lowest air pressure occurs in July at 759.5 mm. In the following months, pressure increases up to 765.4 mm in November, with a significant jump in September of 3.3 mm (the maximum monthly difference). In December and January there is a small decrease of up to 1 mm. In February, pressure increases and reaches a maximum value of 465.6 mm, but then there is a downturn to July, with a small increase of 0.2 mm in May and sharp decrease of 2.1 mms in March and April. Thus, summer is distinguished by great stability in air pressure, with August having the most stable air pressure.
From all of the aforementioned, an image in bold relief emerges of Evpatoria as an exclusive seaside sun resort with its extremely valuable climatic features. It has an abundance of sun, great solar radiation intensity and moderate air humidity. And no less important or favorable are the sea breezes during the summer months. The single adverse climatic factor here is the northeasterly and east-northeasterly winds, frequent enough in winter, but still not enough to really affect Evpatoria's enormous natural advantages.
We already spoke of Evpatoria's sea coast and the characteristic periodic breezes, arising due to the unequal heating and cooling of water and land. In the afternoon, powerful streams of ionized air, saturated with salt, head towards land, cooling the coast. This is the sea breeze. At night steppe air, imbued with the scent of curative grasses, flowers and pine-needles, heads toward the sea. Mixing at the coast, streams of sea and steppe air create a huge natural inhaler. This illustrates the city's advantage over Yalta and Feodosia, where surrounding mountains prevent the development during this time of year of beneficial air movement. So Evpatoria, due to its dominating constant winds of relatively low average power, has extremely favorable conditions for health treatment.
Evpatoria is quite fine anytime of year. Elderly people, suffering from cardio-vascular deviations, will feel best in autumn here, in September to October, when water temperature is still warm and the sun gently warms the air but there is now an invigorating coolness. These are the best months for those who need increased vitamin nourishment - Evpatoria's shop counters and street kiosks have an abundance of vegetables, fruits and grapes.
In November and December, roses still bloom on the flowerbeds and one can take solar and air baths in transparent booths protected from winds on the beach, or get a beneficial sleep on an open verandah, night or day. General health spas provide mud and water therapy procedures all year long. With the nearly snowless winter, people with neurological diseases feel themselves better on our seashore.
Spring and summer are the best times for children (over three years old) to swim. Swimming in the sea begins at the end of May and lasts to October. In July and August, sand and estuary baths are widely used for medical purposes.
The climatic data already mentioned here allows us to characterize Evpatoria as a region with a warm, seaside climate with a certain shade of dryness, explained by the vicinity of the steppe to the resort. This dryness in the air, in spite of the near vicinity of the sea under the intensive effects of the sun, and the heat of the air in summer months, promotes moistening of skin (sweating) that is useful in the treatment of some ailments of the kidney (nephritis), metabolism or other diseases.
In the opinion of doctors, the seaside climate with its diverse nuances and the abundance and unique combination of curative factors creates a natural base for these factors to act to the best advantage on the skin, the respiratory passages, the nervous system and the body as a whole during conditioning and treatment.